Also these economies can turn taken backward to a process of primitivización. Progress and modernization – since it was in the habit of naming to the development in the decade of 1960-they turn on having be invested in regression and primitivización. The economic activities, the technologies and the economic systems in its entirety can move back during some time to manners of production and technologies that were looking like a past history. The countries specialized in the supply of raw materials to the rest of the world will reach more soon or later the moment in which his performance begins to decrease. The law of the diminishing performances says essentially that when a factor of the production comes from the nature – as in the agriculture, the ranching, the fishing or the mining industry-, From certain point the addition of more cardinal and / or more work will provide a smaller performance for every unit of the capital or added work. The oil till now has not born anyone in mind as a raw material, nevertheless, is going to start having realize. Because the productivity will diminish instead of increasing if the production grows. The natural resources are in the habit of being of variable quality. On having increased the production with the international specialization the natural resources can be also difficult or impossible to renew. In such conditions, the technologies offered by the modern economy do not turn out to be profitable and – if it does not take place to where to go – the people increasingly poor strain for producing, with instruments increasingly primitive, with diminishing rates of productivity. This is what has been called the primitivización, as economic phenomenon. And because of it we see these areas of tensions, next to a great wealth a great poverty and a great tyranny. Today the miners of the Bolivian city of Fortune – that in another time was the second major city of the world after London – struggle with adzes to extract a material that already has been fused at least once. But the oil is a resource that seems to be inextinguishable but it it is not. And on having made less and less profitable the employment of modern technology, it turns to less intensive methods in the capital and “more “primitive”.
For this we are returning to the protectionism in the economies. If an alternative employment does not exist out of the sector that depends on the natural resources, the population will meet obliged to live only of these. From certain moment it will be necessary more work to produce the same quantity and this will create a pressure to the fall on the wage national level. Of there is recognized the need of a protectionism that it has to see with a gradual development of the national economies. The current economists have re-discovered the exposition that there was exposing Von Thünen of the economic geography of which the core of activities with increasing performance was in the city, but some of them spend totally for highly the crucial point on which he was insisting: that the urban activities with increasing performances need tariff protection to put in functioning the whole system, which he made in four circles, more nearby or far from the city. The imbalances in the learning between the old men and the new generations help to stop also a technological radical change. The overthrow of the institutions does not follow immediately that of the opinions. The inertia stops the process of change. It turns out particularly interesting that when a country was exporting industrial products in exchange for other industrial products, this was considering to be a good trade for both parts. The fundamental idea here is that between the raw material and the finished product there is a multiplier: an industrial process that demands and believes knowledge, mechanization, technology, division of the work, increasing performances and – on everything – employment. The same thing happens also with all the products that come to us from the China, which there is a multiplier in all this process and because of it it is admitted as something positive. And it was said the same thing of the oil only that it was serving to increase the taxes to the State, which really is the one that was taking this multiplier and other concessionary companies to himself. The ” multiplier of the industry ” was the key both for the progress and for the political freedom. And this still they have to learn it in these Arabic countries, Lybia, Egypt, Tunis. But the theoretical ones of the neoclassic formal economy stopped studying the driving forces of the capitalism and devoted themselves to study only the auxiliary factors, as he was saying another day.
According to Johann Jacob Meyen in 1769: ” it is known that the primitive nations do not improve his customs and habits to find later useful industries, but exactly upside-down “. The change of mentality accompanies to the change in the way of production. The mentalities and the institutions change relatively rapid form when there is modified the structure of the economic activities. This one is the basic direction of the causal arrow of the development.